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Development of Marxist Theory

Marxism was a theory developed by Marx and Engels for the benefit of the working class and was based at least in part on observations Marx made of the working conditions in industrial Britain. Following the logic of Marx's view, the revolution should have taken place in an industrial nation like Britain, Germany, or even the United States, but instead the revolution came to a non-industrial society, that of czarist Russia. The question is why this occurred.

The conceptions of Karl Marx derive from his view of the nature and origin of society. Marx had a conception of human history based on dialectical materialism, and this includes the underlying idea that the determining factors in the development, relations, and institutions of mankind are not mystical or ideological but economic. All human actions are rooted in labor activities and in the nature of the relations deriving from those activities. Human beings must secure a livelihood, and to accomplish this they organize their productive forces to operate throughout the resulting economic spectrum. Everything else in life rests on this economic foundation. It is through this economic structure that society comes into being, and the society that results is made up of social classes, with one class dominant at a given time based on the control of the means of production. Human nature is expressed in the way individuals relate to class and the way they are controlled by that relationship. The workers sell their labor and are alienated from the product of their labor as a consequence. The workers do not own the means of production. In our present social structure, it is the capitalist who owns the means of production, and this person sells the product of the labor of the workers. Marx sees this as the exploitation of one class by another, finding that it produces class hostilities based on material inequalities. The class struggle is the defining fact of societal life and ...

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Development of Marxist Theory. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 20:42, February 23, 2017, from