CRITIQUE OF THE NEUMAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM MODEL OF NURSING
This research critiques Betty Neuman's Health Care Systems Model of nursing. The critique format employed considers Neuman's model through (1) a description of the model, (2) an analysis of the model within the context of the level of theory, and (3) and evaluation of the model within the contexts of (a) historical evolution, (b) developmental approach, (c) assumptions upon which the model is based, (d) description within the model of the four metaparadigm concepts of nursing, (e) relationship of the metaparadigm factors, and (f) areas of concern. The description of the model and the analysis of the model within the context of the level of theory is an approach developed and recommended by Lorraine Walker and Kay Avant (1989, pp. 133-136) in Strategies for Theory Construction in Nursing. The evaluative framework employed in the critique of Neuman's model was described and recommended by Jacqueline Fawcett (1989, pp. 40-45, 215-225) in Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing.
Description of Neuman's Health Care System Model of Nursing
The Neuman Health Care Systems Model (Neuman, 1980, p. 5) is derived theoretically from Gestalt theory, general systems theory, Hans Selye's theory of stress, the holistic systems concept of Bernard Marx, Pierre Teilhard deChardin's philosophy of the wholeness of life, and Gerald Caplan's conceptual models of levels of