Concepts of Leadership & Management

This study examined the concepts of leadership and management, with a particular emphasis on how organizational leadership may best be practiced within the continuum ranging from the authoritative style to the participative style. It was found that transformational leadership is required by organizations in the 1990s. The transformational leader attempts to develop a strong organizational commitment on the part of the people he or she is leading. The vision of the transformational leader, together with her or his own demonstrated willingness to sacrifice selfinterest for the good of the organization, provides the necessary incentive for organizational subordinates to make a similar transformation.

It was also found that the trend is in the direction of participative management. One characteristic of all forms of participative management is that organizational superiors consult with their subordinates concerning the development of performance objectives which are compatible with organizational goals. Thus, participative management, by its very nature, requires very different leadership styles from those associated with the authoritarian style.

As the American economy and society become more complex, and as both society and the economy become more internationalized, so too, the demands placed on organizational leadership are magnified. Over the past three decades, scores of books, and hundreds of a



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