This research paper provides information regarding the health topic of type II diabetes (NIDDM) from a bio-psycho-social approach. Definition, etiology, prevalence, costs and care, and policies are included in the discussion. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a lack of insulin secretion and/or increased cellular resistance to insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia and metabolic problems. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM; type II diabetes) is found in adults 45 years or older. Risk factors for NIDDM include a diabetic family history, obesity, race, age 45 years plus, previous IGT, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and women with a history of GDM or delivery of infants over nine pounds. It has been estimated that total incident cases of NIDDM is 576,136 people per year.
Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continued medical care and education. Nutrition and education, pharmacological approaches, and self-management with education are important care factors. Psychological aspects such as the patient's perspective, treatment preferences, and readiness to change are also considered. Community and social contexts such as work, family, neighborhood, general community support, and encouragement of behaviors for a diabetes regimen are important. Policies that ensure effective diabetes education interventions, materials, and supplies at available costs are needed. Patients with NIDDM need access to adequate on-going care wit
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