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The Fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale marks the most extensive revision of the Binet-Simon Scale since its inception. The test now consists of 15 separate subtests yielding scores in four areas of cognitive ability. These areas are: (1) Verbal Reasoning; (2) Abstract/Visual Reasoning; (3) Quantitative Reasoning; and (4) Short-Term Memory (Sabatino, 1993).

Designed to reflect the theory of fluid and crystallized abilities, the fourth edition of the instrument blends theory with measurement practice. The test is based on a hierarchial model of intelligence which incorporates the g-factor and four cognitive areas with general intelligence at the top of the hierarchy (Nagle & Bell, 1993).

At the first level of the structural model are information-processing abilities including planning and organizing abilities and reasoning and adaptation skills (Glutting, 1989). At the second level are crystallized abilities (also referred to as scholastic or academic abilities), fluid-analytic abilities (that is, non-language abilities that relate to variables such as spatial skills and originality in problem-solving), and short-term memory (Glutting, 1989).

At the third level of the model are verbal reasoning skills, abstract and visual reasoning skills, and quantitative reasoning skills. These three areas, along with short term memory at the second level of the hierarchy, make up what are call

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