The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of career counseling. To this end, the paper begins by defining career counseling and distinguishing a "job" from a "career." This is followed by a delineation and discussion of the goals of career counseling and the various changes (effects) it produces in the lives of individuals. An example of career counseling and its effects in the life of an individual is provided. The overview ends with a summary and evaluation.
Career Counseling: Definition and Difference Between
According to Peterson and Nisenholz (1994), career counseling may be defined as an aspect of general counseling that includes all counseling activities associated with career choices over the life-span. The career counseling process, according to the authors, includes all areas of personal need as they input into career choices over an individual's life including family, work and leisure needs.
Peterson and Nisenholz (1994) further note that the career counselor makes a strong distinction between a "job" and a "career." A job is viewed by the career counselor as a single position an individual occupies in a particular work setting. A career, on the other hand, is viewed as one's life-long sequence of work and encompasses, education and even recreational experiences as each of these areas relate to work over the life-span.
According to Swanson (1995), the goals of career counseling are diverse and, to at least some extent, dependent upon the particular needs of the client. However, Swanson points out that some of the most common career counseling goals are to help individuals: identify their interests, skills and values as they related to their careers; develop job search strategies and action plans; and explore possible job/career options. Krau (1997) states that regardless of differences, the primary goals of all career counseling are to provide the individual with job search strategies, res...