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Professional Managers vs. Entrepreneurs

Management is the art of getting things done through people and other resources (Nickels, p. 302). In the past, the model was that of a "boss" who exercised autocratic control over his subordinates. Discipline and firing were common tools used in ensuring productivity on the part of employees. If a worker performed poorly, his pay would be cut or he would be demoted, with a warning that next time, he would be fired. The common philosophy used by such managers in days past, emphasized the "stick" rather than the "carrot" with respect to subordinates. The idea of being a "tough boss" prevailed in most business circles, and employees were often treated more like children than adults. Thus, until a few decades ago, management emphasized the autocratic approach vis-a-vis the treatment of the workforce.

Management has evolved to the concept of providing guidance and encouragement to employees, emphasizing the "carrot" more and "stick" less (Nickels, p.302). Teamwork and cooperation are emphasized rather than coercion, discipline, and order-giving. Training is used extensively to upgrade skills in today's increasingly sophisticated and technological workplace (e.g., with respect to computerization). Informality is more common with respect to dress codes and conduct, and hierarchical differences between management and subordinates are less important. Employees are increasingly encouraged to partake in decision-making by managers, which is sometimes formalized in collective bargaining agreements with labor unions. Indeed, relations between management and unions in general are far less confrontational than half a century ago, when unions were initially forming on a large scale. Thus, the manager today mainly acts to facilitate and motivate, rather than acting as the autocratic disciplinarian of the past.

The functions of management remain the same today as in the past-- planning, organization, leadership, and control (Nic...

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Professional Managers vs. Entrepreneurs. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 20:45, August 06, 2020, from