This research paper presents the topic of inclusion. The law mandates that all children receive an adequate education, yet studies show that the debate about inclusion persists. Pro-inclusionists argue that special education is unequal, more expensive and detrimental to all children. Non-inclusionists argue that disabled students need extra attention, which may disrupt regular classrooms. In addition it is argued that inclusion has resulted in increased segregation of minority students. The argument that the disabled student receives more social adjustment in the regular classroom sways some toward inclusion, however teacher and administrator attitudes toward inclusion remain inconsistent. Studies agree that training and experience, adequate support, classroom factors, and disability severity or type all affect inclusion attitudes of teachers regardless of school level. Future research needs to clarify factors and barriers related to successful inclusion and positive inclusion attitudes in all involved, for all student age and disability groups.
The following research paper presents the topic of inclusion. Background information related to inclusion is presented and followed by an overview of current research, and a review of the literature. Areas of agreement and disagreement are presented along with unresolved issues or issues with conflicting findings, implications of findings, and future trends.
Background Information Related to Inclusion
The 1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act, reauthorized as the 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, resulted in increased numbers of students with disabilities being included in the general education classroom, however this Act regarded a smaller and less diverse group of students compared to that found in today's classrooms (Artiles, 2003; Connor & Ferri, 2005). Special education today includes increased racial minority students and increased numbers ...