Mental disorders include a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome occurring in a person, that is associated with present distress or disability or a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom. The symptoms are not a typical response to a situation or event, but are a manifestation of a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction. Disorders classified include: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder; and borderline, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders. Similarities and differences between the paranoid personality and schizophrenia, paranoid type, and obsessive-compulsive personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder are found. The effects of physical violence on children is also discussed (DSM-III-R, 1987).
Schizophrenia & Schizoaffective Disorders
Features of schizophrenia include the presence of characteristic psychotic symptoms during an active phase, with functioning below the highest level previously achieved, and a duration of at least six months which may include characteristic prodromal or residual symptoms. Delusions, hallucination, or certain characteristic disturbances in affect and thought form are always included at some phase of the illness. Symptoms include disturbances in: thought content and form, perception, affect, sense of self, volition, relationship to the external world, and psychomotor behavior. Associated behaviors include perplexion, dishevelment, eccentricicity in grooming, pacing, rocking, apathetic immobility, poverty of speech, magical thinking, dysphoria, anxiety, anger, depersonalization, derealization, ideas of reference, illusions, hypochrondiacal concern, confusion, and memory impairment. Diagnostic subtypes include: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual types (DSM-III-R, 1987).
Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia in the United Sta...