1. Medical asepsis is a clean technique used to reduce and
prevent the spread of microorganisms (Lee, 2004). Surgical asepsis is a sterile technique that requires nurses to use different precautions than they do for medical asepsis. It includes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area. Surgical asepsis procedures are followed when performing an invasive procedure into a body cavity normally free of microorganisms. Medical aspesis means clean; surgical asepsis means sterile.
A sterile object remains sterile only when touched by another sterile object (Lee, 2004). Only sterile objects may be placed on a sterile field. A sterile object or field out of the range of vision or an object held below a person's waist is contaminated. The edges of a sterile field or container are considered contaminated. A sterile object or field becomes contaminated by prolonged exposure to air. When a sterile surface comes in contact with a wet contaminated surface, the sterile object or field becomes contaminated by capillary action.
2. The patient should be given Percocet PO in a low dose to
start with because it is safer than Demerol for an elderly person (Percocet, 2004; Demerol, 2004). Demerol can cause respiratory depression more easily in the elderly. Also, since the man has diabetes, he may also have impaired renal function, in which case Demerol is not recommended. Because of his age and his diabetic neuropathies, he may also have liver, thyroid, or urogenital tract problems, which would contraindicate the use of Demerol. Even with Percocet, the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be minimal to control the pain to a tolerable level. With lower extremity neuropathies leading to a gangrenous toe, he most likely has considerably reduced feeling in his feet and legs, and his pain may be not as severe as it is reported to be.
3. 1. N...