The purpose of this study was to determine teachers perceptions of factors that both positively and negatively influence their motivation in their work at Philip Livingston Middle School. These data were to then be used in the development and implementation of a program designed to increase teacher motivation at the school.
Sample subjects consisted of 40 teachers and 3 administrators. Findings showed that while none of the examined factors were perceived by teachers as strongly negative in their influence on motivation, several key factors were very weak in their motivating strength for teachers. These factors were: opportunities for self-development and growth; degree of perceived "fit " between the job description and the job actualities; degree of work required, availability of rest periods/coffee breaks, knowing what is going on at the school, evaluations, nature of supervision, working conditions, the general nature of the work, promotions and staff meetings. Several of these factors were focused on and emphasized in the designed program.
Motivational Studies: Methodological Considerations
The literature reviewed so far has been offered to provide a general feel for the areas of motivational research. However, it must be pointed out here that it is not the intention of this review to present existing research findings as forms of "gospel". Rather, it needs to be noted that a good deal of existing work is problematic on both conceptual and methodological grounds. This fact can best be seen by the following critique of a few of the most recent studies in the field.
With respect to the foregoing, it can be noted that Duval (1989) presents a historical analysis of Vermont teachers circa 1830 to 1930 in an effort to determine motivational and other factors that make for teaching excellence. In this regard, review of examples of high productivity teachers leads Duval to conclude that motivation arises from indiv...