The following presents a review of the literature related to 12:1:1 classroom management. The following topics are discussed: introduction to the 12:1:1 classroom; challenges encountered in the 12:1:1 classroom; classroom management; and summary and conclusions.
Introduction to the 12:1:1 Classroom
The 12:1:1 classroom has a maximum of 12 students with one teacher and one paraprofessional. Students range in age from five to 21 years and they have a variety of educational, management, and social needs. For this type of classroom teaching instruction takes place in small group and individual settings with multiple teaching strategies for each learning style. Instruction may include standard curricula and/or many other curricula/skills such as speech and physical therapy, occupational and pre-vocational skills, living skills, social skills, functional academics, career education, and counseling. Problems experienced by the 12:1:1 class students include: mental retardation, developmental disability, emotional disability, and violent or aggressive behaviors (Genesee Valley BOCES Special Education, 2005; Oswego County BOCES, 2005).
Thurlow, Ysseldyke, Wotruba, and Algozzine (1993) presented findings related to instruction in special education classrooms under varying student-teacher ratios.á For this study, 139 elementary school students in grades one through six and 54 teachers were investigated; in eight school districts students received special education services. Classroom characteristics were assessed and compared for the following student-teacher ratios: 1:1, 3:1; 6:1; 9:1; and 12:1. Findings showed that lower teacher-student ratios had fewer problem behaviors and increased academic behaviors. Lower rations resulted in increased teacher checking for student understanding, assignment of tasks, and feedback. The 1:1 ratio resulted in less inappropriate behavior in the classroom, higher degrees of academic respond...