This literature review concerning the topic of effects of parental involvement on student achievement during middle school years addresses the following relevant areas: historical demands for parental involvement in school; parental involvement in early schooling; parent involvement during middle school years; parent views of the need for parental involvement; barriers to parental involvement; parent involvement strategies; parent involvement and student achievement; and summary and conclusion.
Historical Demands for Parental Involvement in School
Desimone (2002) reviewed and synthesized existing relevant literature and reported on school improvement efforts and their demand for parental involvement in school. Desimone stated that the United States has attempted to reform schools and increase education quality and academic performance for the past two decades. Early efforts for reforms in the 1980s led to literature which identified characteristics that are linked to successful schools which included parental involvement. The Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) program was enacted by Congress in 1997. As a result of this program $120 million was provided for Title I schools, which are subject to accountability. The law mandates that schools meet CSRD program criteria for parent and community involvement (Desimone, 2002).
Mintrop and MacLellan (2002) conducted an empirical study with a content analysis of 46 school