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This research reviews the speech disorder of stuttering. In this research, the emphasis is placed on theories concerning the causes of stuttering.

Stuttering is the word most frequently used in the United States to describe the disorder, while stammering is the word used most frequently in the United Kingdom (Byrne, 1989). There is no difference between stuttering and stammering (Byrne, 1989).

Stuttering is "speech which is hesitant, stumbling, tense or jerky to the extent that it causes anxiety to the speaker and/or the listener" (Byrne, 1989, p. 1). There is no single speech behavior which may be designated as the definition of a stutter (Byrne, 1989). Rather, there are "many different ways in which people speak with a marked lack of fluency" (Byrne, 1989, p. 1). One person may

get blocked or stuck on a certain sound or sounds, another may repeat sounds, another may go back and take a run at the difficult word, and yet another may do all these things and many more (Byrne, 1989, p. 1).

In a sense, discussing a stutter is similar to discussing a broken leg (Byrne, 1989). With a broken leg, one must know (1) where it is broken, (2) in how many places it is broken, and (3) and how severe the injury is (Byrne, 1989). The term "broken leg" is insufficient as a description of the problem (Byrne, 1989, p. 1). Similarly, the term "stuttering" is insufficient as a description of the speech fluency problem experienced by a specifi

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Category: Psychology - S

Some common topics found in the essays are:

Erich Fromm, Fennell Carr, Woolfolk Richardson, Kingdom Byrne, Kaplan Sadock, Causes Stuttering, Langner Michael, Van Riper, Stuttering Behaviors, Science Medicine, byrne 1989, ling 1979, stuttering behavior, speech fluency, stuttering behaviors, selye 1950, marks 1979, condition shyness, literature indicates, byrne 1989 1, motor skill, langner michael 1963, ling 1979 215, woolfolk richardson 1978, motor skill components,

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