This research reviews the speech disorder of stuttering. In this research, the emphasis is placed on theories concerning the causes of stuttering.
Stuttering is the word most frequently used in the United States to describe the disorder, while stammering is the word used most frequently in the United Kingdom (Byrne, 1989). There is no difference between stuttering and stammering (Byrne, 1989).
Stuttering is "speech which is hesitant, stumbling, tense or jerky to the extent that it causes anxiety to the speaker and/or the listener" (Byrne, 1989, p. 1). There is no single speech behavior which may be designated as the definition of a stutter (Byrne, 1989). Rather, there are "many different ways in which people speak with a marked lack of fluency" (Byrne, 1989, p. 1). One person may
à get blocked or stuck on a certain sound or sounds, another may repeat sounds, another may go back and take a run at the difficult word, and yet another may do all these things and many more (Byrne, 1989, p. 1).
In a sense, discussing a stutter is similar to discussing a broken leg (Byrne, 1989). With a broken leg, one must know (1) where it is broken, (2) in how many places it is broken, and (3) and how severe the injury is (Byrne, 1989). The term "broken leg" is insufficient as a description of the problem (Byrne, 1989, p. 1). Similarly, the term "stuttering" is insufficient as a description of the speech fluency problem experienced by a specifi