1. The difference in polarity between CO2 and SO2 can be explained by their molecular shape. The CO2 has a linear shape, being O=C=O. There are two electron domains around the central carbon atom, therefore it is linear (Niles, 2004). There is no charge on the molecule because there are no lone electron pairs. The SO2 molecule is a bent molecule, existing as a resonance structure, with a lone pair of electrons on the S. The molecule has an S-O single bond and an S=O double bond. The molecule is trigonal planar because there are three electron domains around the central sulfur atom.
2. The hydronium ion, H3O, has a positive charge on one of the H ions in the molecule, which has a trigonal pyramidal configuration. The NH3 molecule also has a trigonal pyramidal configuration, giving the molecule an overall dipole moment and making it polar (Ammonia, 2005). The nitrogen atom has a lone pair of electrons so it acts as a base. The molecules are considered isoelectronic because they both have three hydrogen atoms attached to a highly negative atom and have the same electronic potential.
3. The Lewis Dot structure is used to represent the valence electrons in chemical bonding, and the Lewis Dot structures are useful for explaining the chemical bonding in ions and molecules (Chieh, 2004). The molecular geometry can be determined from the Lewis Dot diagrams because it is determined by the number of electron domains around the central atom (Niles, 2004). Shape is determined by the number of both shared and unshared domains of electrons around the central atom and refers only to the orientation of atoms in and around the center.
4. Electron geometry refers to the geometry of electron domains around the central atom and can be determined from a formula (Niles, 2004). For example, two electron domains gives a linear molecule; three domains gives a trigonal planar molecule; four domains gives a tetrahedral structure; five dom...