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Artificial Intelligence

The dynamical hypothesis in cognitive science is directly opposed to the computational hypothesis that argues cognitive agents are digital computers. According to van Gelder (2003), the dynamical hypothesis is the claim that “cognitive agents are dynamical systems,” (1). There are two main elements of the dynamical hypothesis. The first is the nature hypothesis that makes the claim that cognitive agents are dynamical systems. The second is known as the knowledge hypothesis that claims that cognitive agents can be understood dynamically. Brooks maintains that once we impart the ability of being and reacting to computers, higher cognitive skills like solving, language, expert knowledge and application, and reason are possible (Brains 2003). For this to occur the “essence” of being and reacting involved a dynamic environment and the need to react to it, “This essence is the ability to move around in a dynamic environment, sensing the surroundings to a degree sufficient to achieve the necessary maintenance of life and reproduction” (Brains 2003).

In this way it is plausible to think of the mind as a dynamical system because it reacts to the dynamism of environmental stimuli. This is where the computational model falls short of explaining cognition and intelligence to van Gelder, Brooks, and Dreyfus because activity requires knowledge of brain functions that play a causal role in behavior, not just simple observation of correlations. Dreyfus’ work challenged the fundamental assumptions of the computational approach. Dreyfus built on the existential phenomenology of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty and the anti-logicism of Wittgenstein’s later work (Dreyfus 2003). Systems of artificial language use symbols and rules for which their use has been constructed. However, while the dynamical hypothesis might provide an effective critique of the computational model of intelligence, it falls short in being a complete way to t...

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Artificial Intelligence. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 11:08, April 21, 2019, from