This literature review concerning the topic of best practices in literacy acquisition in specific learning disabilities classrooms addresses the following areas relevant to this study: introduction; assessment of learning and reading problems; factors related to learning and reading problems; general intervention strategies; specific strategies; phonetics; technology; and summary and conclusion.
Bell,áMcCallum, and Coxá(2003) reported that reading difficulty in school is common and accounts for up to 80% of initial learning disability diagnoses. Hettinger and Knapp (2001) presented views of best practices in literacy acquisition from an elementary school child with reading difficulty.á When interviewed this student stated that school was a problem due to his inability to read. He felt frustrated and avoided reading assignments. He lashed out in anger at his inability and this resulted in negative feedback from teachers and peers. This student stated that the teacher never reads for fun, he didn't like the books that were read, and he did not receive the help needed to sound out words in class. This student recommended that if a student is having trouble reading, he should not receive bad grades but should receive hints until he can figure out the material. The student also stated that help should be sought from a counselor if he was having more trouble than that. Hettinger and Knapp (2001) concluded that students who cannot read well need to be thought of as students who have not yet learned to read well, rather than poor readers. These students may be bright, deep, and critical thinkers and they require support and encouragement.
Assessment of Learning and Reading Problems
Berninger,áDunn, Lin, and Shimadaá(2004) pointed out that educators must determine if students are having difficulties due to learning differences or learning disabilities.á Research findings have shown that instruction that is intensiv...