The purpose of this study was to develop a solution alternative to the problem of acquiring and retaining competent and dedicated personnel for human services work in the public sector in the State of Florida. Literature relevant to the problem investigated is reviewed in this chapter. The topical areas reviewed in this chapter are motivation in organizations, the exercise of power in organizations, the development of organizational commitment, and participation and decisionmaking in organizations.
Motivation in Organizations The need to motivate members of an organization to perform in a productive manner is a well accepted premise (Luthans, 1991, pp. 146147). The means by which such motivation is accomplished within organizational structures, however, are subject to disagreement, experiment, and dynamic change (Luthans, 1991, pp. 151152). Since the mid1950s, three theories of motivation that have received wide attention and considerable acceptance are those of Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, and B. F. Skinner (Steers and Porter, 1991, p. 202). While none of these theories has proven valid in all situations, each has made major contributions to the development of a wide variety of effective techniques for the motivation of individuals within organizational environments.
The motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg, and Skinner are, essentially, drive theories. While they are drive theories, they have also provided the bases upon which most other types of effective motivational techniques for application within organizational environments have been developed (Luthans, 1991, pp. 170171).
The motivational theories are directly related to the process of learning (Maslow, 1966, p. 13). By learning is meant the process by which an individual is able to change her or his behavior in some constructive manner (Skinner, 1953, pp. 5961). Three basic theories of learning are (1) trial an...