This research paper presents the modern-day role of men in Egypt and India. The realities affecting Egypt today are poverty, illiteracy, high birth increase, and chronic unemployment. Half of the population live at or below the poverty level. India is the second most populated nation in the world. Women are at a disadvantage to males and large numbers are missing; poverty contributes to this situation (males are fed, females are deprived nutrition) (Adler 123).
Son preference is found in Egypt (Aly and Shields 354). Sons are able to carry the family name and provide future economic support for the family. Females do not contribute economically and must be supervised to guard against moral indiscretion; they are a source of anxiety to the family. Males who have sons are immortal. Women are valuable if they have male children. Education is compulsory between the ages 6 to 15, however more males begin school and more females drop out (Adler 46-53).
Gender roles in Egypt are within the Islamic context, the fundamental organizational background of Egyptian society; citizens are predominantly Sunni Muslims. Women are under male guardianship and this safeguards morality. Marriage is a contract between men and women and the woman must give consent for a marriage to occur, however, divorce is the prerogative of men. Men can divorce their wife by stating "I divorce you" three times. Men and women are entitled to inheritance rights and property ownership, but men inherit twice the portion of women. Women are mothers and wives and men are the protectors and maintainers of women because they are given more strength and support them from their means. The male commands obedience and respect from the female; it is her duty (Adler 46-48).
Villages have changed from an economic system based on agriculture to one with off-farm employment. In a typical village family cycle the older men lose power when their sons leave the fam...