Effects of Depression on Perceptions of Time Passage
The problem is that while studies examine depression antecedents, symptoms, and effects, and support conclusions that depression alters the perceptions of individuals, findings tend to be related to perceptions of relationships and behaviors, rather than time passage. The study of depression has yielded findings such as the fact that women tend to suffer more from this disorder than men and are reported to be increasing (Kasen, Cohen, Chen, & Castille, 2003). In addition, studies show that cultural factors related to identity and mental health issues affect depression and its treatment (Wong, Kim, Zane, Kim, & Huang, 2003). Studies have also pointed out that depressed individuals perceive relationships as more dissatisfying (Martire, Schulz, Wrosch, & Newsom, 2003).
Studies of the effects of depression on perceptions of time passage are few in number. An early study demonstrated a positive relationship between depression and judgments of slow speed in time passage, but this relationship was not found when considering actual knowledge that time had passed. A limitation of this early study was that it included college students as subjects rather than a clinical population (Hawkins, French, Crawford, & Enzle, 1988). Findings related to this topic are limited implying the need for a study to investigate this relationship with additional populations.
Hawkins, French, Crawford, and Enzle (1988) studied depressed affect and time perception. For this study, the sample included 91 male and female undergraduate students from a psychology course. The subjects participated in a card sorting experiment to determine experiences of the passage of time. Mood states were induced to include depression and more elevated states. Findings showed that students in which a depressed state was induced, rated the passage of time to feel slow, compared to those in which a more elevate...