OLD ENGLISH, MIDDLE ENGLISH & MODERN ENGLISH
Studying the history of the English language
The history of the English language can be studied from a linguistic viewpoint--internal history, where linguistic sounds, structures, vocabulary, and other categories trace the evolution of the language. It can also be studied from the viewpoint of geographical and social spread, attitudes towards the language, features, and attempts at regulating it--this is external history. The difficulty with this classification is that there is constant overlap between the two approaches, such as when English borrows from, say, French; then, attitudes (an external factor) influence vocabulary (an internal factor).
"Internal linguistic change is often in the direction of diversity" (Bolton, 1992, p. 472). Yet, changes tend towards a certain regularity. Rhotic vs non-rhotic is an example of such overlapping and regularity. The English r is pronounced whenever it is orthographically present (read, bear, barrel, worker), i.e. rhotic pronouncing. In another set of accents, r is pronounced in syllable-initial position (red) and intervocally (barrel), but not postvocally (beer, beard, worker). In these positions, the r is vocalized and not pronounced unless another vowel follows--a non-rhotic phenomenon. In Canada, India, Ireland, South-Western England, Scotland, in the Barbados, and in the northern and western states of the U.S.A. (except for Boston and New York City), the r sound is rhotic. In Black Africa, Australia, the Caribbean (except for Barbados), England (apart from the south-west), New Zealand, South Africa, the southern U.S. states, the Boston area of New England, New York City vernacular speech, Wales, and the Black English vernacular in the U.S., the r is non-rhotic. Changes and diversity affect the way words are pronounced, and also the way they are written. Witnesses the American simplification of honour to honor and the atttempted si...