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Present view of psychology is that it is a natural science. Society and the scientific community approve of the discipline, however, insecurities remain. Independent scientific psychology was found throughout the nineteenth century. The end of that century brought the founding of a laboratory and the first journal for the new independent scientific psychology. Over the next one hundred years scientific psychology has included a work force that now constitutes one of the largest groups within contemporary scholarship. Doubt still remains though since throughout the accumulation of technical literature with thousands of law-like statements, not one can be counted as a law by the standards of the natural sciences or in the sense of commanding universal assent. Some areas of psychology require modes of inquiry that are considered by some as more like those of the humanities than the sciences, such as perception, cognition, motivation, and learning, and fields such as social psychology, psychopathology personality, aesthetics, and the analysis of creativity (Koch & Leary, 1992, pp. 60, 75-76, 94).

For others, the scientific evolution of psychology begins with the influence of philosophy. Plato, Aristotle, and other scholars struggled with today's problems such as memory, learning, motivation, perception, dreaming, and abnormal behavior, as early as the fifth century B.C. Early philosophers studied the human nature through speculation, intuition, and generalization of personal experience. Psychology began to separate from its philosophical roots with the application of tools and methods from the biological and physical sciences to questions about human nature. Changes in American psychology from 1880 to 1895 included the establishment of laboratories, journals, and the American Psychological Association. Psychology became the science of behavior that was shaped as a discipline by social, economic, and political forces. Diffe...

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