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Kuhn & Popper

(a) The theories and philosophy of Thomas Kuhn revolve around his concept of scientific paradigms and the way he views the progress of science. Kuhn viewed scientific progress as a cyclical and continuously evolving discipline with three stages of evolution that continue to evolve and repeat: normal science; crisis; scientific revolution. Normal science is the generally accepted framework, theories or shared understanding between scientists within a particular discipline. Normal science represents a period of stability in which scientists trained under the dominate theories of the time continue to refine and enhance the main theories of paradigms that have led to a period of stability. When enough experimentation reaches conclusions which differ or are anomalous to the generally accepted paradigms, a period of crisis results. Further experimentation leads to a new “normal science” through scientific revolution. Thus, the three stages cycle and evolve but it is the general paradigms that are accepted through experimentation which give stability to normal science. According to Kuhn, a paradigm is “a term that closely relates to normal science. By choosing it, I mean to suggest that some accepted examples of actual scientific practice…provide models from which spring particular coherent traditions of scientific research…[they are] scientific achievements…that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice” (Kuhn 10).

(b) There are paradigms and they are used because they allow individuals within a specific scientific community to share professional communication and relative judgements. The paradigm is a model or framework that is shared by a particular scientific community. Some examples would be Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, Newtonian Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.

(c) Since science must progress as more facts are discovered throu...

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Kuhn & Popper. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 16:56, December 06, 2021, from