This research paper presents dreams according to Freud, Jung, and Horney. The theories of these three analysts are introduced, similarities and differences are noted, and dream analysis viewed by each is discussed.
Theory Discussion: Freud, Jung, & Horney
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed psychoanalysis. His work formulated the psychoanalytic view of human nature. He explained the personality as a closed energy system, made up of unconscious instincts, biological drives that will be attended to, conscious and unconscious parts (Id, Ego, Super Ego), anxieties, and defense systems (repression, denial, intellectualization). Childhood experiences and biological instincts determined who a person is. Thus human nature was viewed as biologically determined and driven, rather than a conglomerate of learned behaviors to be manipulated or a positive potential for self-actualization (Schultz & Schultz, 1992).
Individuals were viewed by Freud as having a constant amount of energy, or libido. Instincts were those that preserve life (hunger), and pleasure (sex), life force (Eros or love), and death force (Thanatos or death). He saw sexual motivation or life instinct as biologically rooted and demanding satisfaction. Libido was stated to undergo four developmental stages: oral, anal, phallic, and genital; the phallic stage ends with a resolution of the Oedipal conflict. The personality was developed by biologically driven psychosexual forces (Schultz & Schultz, 1992).
Freud viewed the dream as representing repressed infantile wishes that were unable to come into consciousness due to the censor (super-ego). Dreams are aimed at the release of sexual tension and fulfillment of instinctual drives. The wishes bypassed this obstruction by distortion, disguise, and deception. Dreams were the road to the unconscious (Gershman, 1983; Palombo, 1983; & Willig, 1958).
Carl G. Jung (1875-1961) developed a system called analy...